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APA 7th Edition - Citations and Formatting

In-Text Citations

  • Author-Date Citation System to identify a resource within the body of a paper and direct the reader to its reference list entry. 
    • Include the author and date in every in-text citation.
  • Paraphrases and quotations require in-text citations.
  • If the author is unknown, include the title and year of publication in the in-text citation.
    • Book with no author: (Interpersonal Skills, 2019).
    • Magazine article with no author: ("Understanding Sensory Memory," 2018).
    • Anonymous author: (Anonymous, 2020). 

Parenthetical Citations

  • Includes both author and date, separated by a comma: (author, date)
  • Can appear within or at the end of a sentence
  • If citation is at the end of a sentence, place punctuation after closing parenthesis: (author, date).

Narrative Citations

  • Author's name is followed by the year in parentheses:
    • Walker (2020) completed a study in health informatics.
  • Author and date can appear within the sentence together without parentheses: 
    • ​In 2020, Walker completed a study in health informatics.
  • For multiple narrative citations within a single paragraph, omit the year but include the date at the end of the paragraph in the parenthetical citation.

Quotes

Short Quotations (less than 40 words)

  • Use double quotation marks.
  • Always include a full citation.
  • Place parenthetical citation at the end of the quotation or the end of the sentence.
  • For a narrative citation, include the author and the year in the sentence and the page number(s) in parentheses at the end of the quotation.
  • Place punctuation after the closing parenthesis for a citation.

 

Block Quotation (40 words or more)

  • Do not use quotation marks.
  • Start quote on a new line.
  • Indent whole block 0.5 in. from left margin.
    • ​For additional paragraphs within quote, indent another 0.5 in.
  • Double-space entire block quotation.
  • Do not include a period after closing citation parentheses.

Correspondence Between In-Text Citations and Reference List

Exceptions:

  • Personal communications are cited in the text only
  • General mentions of whole websites, periodicals, common software, and apps
  • Quotes from research participants