Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

APA 7th Edition - Citations and Formatting

In-Text Citations

  • Author-Date Citation System to identify a resource within the body of a paper and direct the reader to its reference list entry. 
    • Include the author and date in every in-text citation.
  • Paraphrases and quotations require in-text citations.
  • If the author is unknown, include the title and year of publication in the in-text citation.
    • Book with no author: (Interpersonal Skills, 2019).
    • Magazine article with no author: ("Understanding Sensory Memory," 2018).
    • Anonymous author: (Anonymous, 2020). 

Parenthetical Citations

  • Includes both author and date, separated by a comma: (author, date)
  • Can appear within or at the end of a sentence
  • If citation is at the end of a sentence, place punctuation after closing parenthesis: (author, date).

Narrative Citations

  • Author's name is followed by the year in parentheses:
    • Walker (2020) completed a study in health informatics.
  • Author and date can appear within the sentence together without parentheses: 
    • ​In 2020, Walker completed a study in health informatics.
  • For multiple narrative citations within a single paragraph, omit the year but include the date at the end of the paragraph in the parenthetical citation.


Short Quotations (less than 40 words)

  • Use double quotation marks.
  • Always include a full citation.
  • Place parenthetical citation at the end of the quotation or the end of the sentence.
  • For a narrative citation, include the author and the year in the sentence and the page number(s) in parentheses at the end of the quotation.
  • Place punctuation after the closing parenthesis for a citation.


Block Quotation (40 words or more)

  • Do not use quotation marks.
  • Start quote on a new line.
  • Indent whole block 0.5 in. from left margin.
    • ​For additional paragraphs within quote, indent another 0.5 in.
  • Double-space entire block quotation.
  • Do not include a period after closing citation parentheses.

Correspondence Between In-Text Citations and Reference List


  • Personal communications are cited in the text only
  • General mentions of whole websites, periodicals, common software, and apps
  • Quotes from research participants