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APA 7th Edition - Citations and Formatting

Paper Format


Use any sans serif or serif font accessible to all users. Options include: 

  • 11-point Calibri
  • 11-point Arial
  • 12-point Times New Roman
  • 11-point Georgia

Use the same font throughout your paper.

  • Within a figure image, use a sans serif font (e.g., Arial or Calibri) with a type size between 8 and 14 points.
  • When presenting a footnote in a page footer, use the default footnote settings (e.g., 10-point font with single line spacing)

Line Spacing

  • Double-space all text.
  • Do not add extra lines before or after headings or between paragraphs.
  • On the title page, place the paper title three or four double-spaced lines down from the top of the page and add an extra line between the paper title and author names.
  • Table bodies and figure images may be single-spaced, one-and-a-half-spaced, or double-spaced.
  • Footnotes at the bottom of the page on which they are called out should be single-spaced.


  • Use 1-in. (2.54-cm) margins on all sides.
  • The page header is placed within the 1-in. margin.

Paragraph Alignment & Indentation 

  • Indent the first line of every paragraph 0.5 in (use Tab function)
  • Leave the remaining lines of the paragraph left-aligned


  • Left-align and do not indent the first line of the abstract; Level 2 and 3 headings; and table and figure numbers, titles, and notes.
  • Apply a hanging indent of 0.5 in. to reference list entries using the paragraph-formatting feature of your word-processing program.
  • Indent block quotations 0.5 in. from the left margin. For longer block quotations, indent subsequent paragraphs an additional 0.5 in.

Order of Pages

In general, start each section on a new page.

Use section labels to separate sections of a paper:

  • "abstract"
  • "literature review"
  • "references"

Format section labels in bold and center them.

Title Page → Abstract →‚Äč Text → References  Appendices

Student Title Page


  • Paper title 
  • Author name (Byline)
  • Author affiliation (department and university)
  • Course number and name 
  • Instructor name
  • Assignment due date
  • Page number in the header


  • Centered, upper half of the page - three to four lines down from top margin, and double spaced
  • Paper title should be in title case
    • title case: major words are capitalized
    • sentence case: most words are lowercased
  • Add an additional double spaced blank line between the title and the byline (author names)
  • Name of each author in order of contribution
    • preferred form of an author's name is first name, middle initial, last name

Title Page Example



  • Brief, comprehensive, and accurate summary of the paper.
  • Address the four or five most important points, concepts, or findings from your paper.
  • Use the same key terms and language used in your paper.


  • Place the abstract on a separate page after the title page (page 2).
  • Include the label “Abstract” in bold, centered at the top of the page.
  • Single paragraph. Do not indent the first line.
  • Double-spaced 
  • ~250 words


Headers and Heading Levels


  • Insert page numbers in the top right corner of the header.
  • The page number should show on all pages.

Running Head 

Optional: Running head is not required for student papers

  • Abbreviated version of paper title—no more than 50 characters, including spaces and punctuation. 
  • Appears in the same format on every page, including the first page. 
  • Do not use the label “Running head:” on any page. 
  • Write in ALL-CAPITAL letters.
  • Insert the running in the page header, aligned to the left margin and across from the right-aligned page number. 


Heading Levels


  • ‚ÄčThere are five levels of headings in APA style.


  • Avoid using only one subheading. Use at least two subheadings or none at all. 
  • Double space all headings
  • It is understood that the first paragraph of a paper is the introduction. The heading "Introduction" is not needed.