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Chicago Citation Guide

A resource guide to help students using the Chicago Manual of Style citation method.

Author-Date is similar APA and MLA citation styles because it uses parenthetical in-text citations. It is not used as frequently as Notes & Bibliography style. Students should check with their professor before using this style.

General Guidelines for Parenthetical Citations

In author-date, text citations include the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number. There is no punctuation between the last name and the publication year, although a comma does precede the page number/locator.

 (Strayed 2012, 87-88)

A semicolon is used if more than one work is cited in a single sentence/citation.

            (Armstrong and Malacinski 1989; Beigl 1989; Pickett and White 1985)

When two or more works by different authors with the same last name, the text citation must include an initial.

            (C. Doershuk 2017)

If the author’s name is included in the text, it should not be repeated in the text citation. The date alone is sufficient.

            Tufte’s (2001) excellent book on chart design warns against a common error.

When the same page/page range is cited more than once in the same paragraph, the text citation can be placed either at the end of the paragraph or after the last reference. 

Citations and Punctuation

Text citations my also include a comment when separated by a semicolon.

            (Mandolan 2017; t-tests are used here)

Author-Date text citations are placed just before any punctuation 

Recent literature has examined long-run price drifts following initial public offerings (Ritter 1991; Loughran and Ritter 1995), stock splits (Ikenberry, Rankine, and Stice 1996), seasoned equity offerings (Loughran and Ritter 1995), and equity purchase (Ikenberry, Lakonishok, and Vermaelen 1995).

The citation can also be placed without punctuation of the sentence does not need it.

There is evidence, for example, that the negative outcomes associated with family structure instability are more pronounced for young children as compared with older children (Sigle-Rushton and McLanahan 2004) and for boys as compared with girls (Cooper et al. 2011).

Direct Quotations

Text citations may go either before or after direct quotations. 

As Edward Tufte points out, “A graphical element may carry data information and also perform a design function usually left to non-data-ink” (2001, 139).


As Edward Tufte (2001, 139) points out, “A graphical element may carry data information and also perform a design function usually left to non-data-ink.”