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Chicago Citation Guide

A resource guide to help students using the Chicago Manual of Style citation method.


Your Chicago-style Bibliography Should be…


Arrange your Bibliography in one alphabetical sequence by the surname of the author, or by title or keyword if there is no author.


Capitalize first and last words in titles and subtitles, and capitalize all other major words. Chicago calls this "headline style" capitalization.


Double-space your entire paper, including notes and the bibliography.

In Italics

Titles and subtitles of books and periodicals are italicized.

Using a Hanging Indent OR Paragraph Style

For your Bibliography, you may choose to use either the hanging indent style or format each entry like a normal paragraph with a first-line indent. While the hanging indent style is more popular, you may want to check with your instructor.


The bibliography is placed at the end of your paper.


Basic Structure

Unlike in the notes, in the bibliography entry, the elements are separated by periods, the publication information is not enclosed in parentheses, and the first-listed author’s name is inverted (last name, first name).

Noun forms such as editor, translator, volume, and edition are abbreviate but verb forms like edited by and translated by are spelled out in a bibliography.


1. Cheryl Strayed, Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2012), 87-88.


Strayed, Cheryl. Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2012.


Last Name, First Name and First Name, eds. Title. Publication Location: Publisher, Date.

Journals, Magazines, and Newspapers

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Title. Volume, Issue Number (Publication Date): Page Number. DOI/URL.


Last Name, First Name. “Title of Web Page.” Website Name. Publication Date. URL.

*If you are unable to find the name of an author begin with item’s title.

*If the you are unable to find the publication date, use the date you accessed the information.


Most of the components used in Notes & Bibliography are also used in the Author-Date method. The primary differences are the placement of the year of publication in the Reference list which in a reference list follows the author’s name and, unlike the Bibliography, each entry in the Reference must have a corresponding text citation.


Bissell, Tom. 2011. Extra Lives: Why Video Games Matter. New York: Vintage Books.

Hutter, Michael. 2011. “Infinite Surprises: Value in the Creative Industries.” In The Worth of Goods: Valuation and Pricing in the Economy, edited by Jen Beckert and Patrick Aspers, 201-20. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lampel, Joseph, Theresa Lant, and Jamal Shamsie. 2000. “Balancing Act: Learning from Organizing Practices in Cultural Industries.” Organization Science 11 (3): 263-69.

Thanks and acknowledgement to Red Deer College's Chicago LibGuide which this page is based on.